Koehler is an internationally-recognized expert on anthrax who holds the Herbert L. and Margaret W. DuPont Distinguished Professor in Biomedical Science and is the chair of the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston.
In 2008 Koehler became a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and in 2009 she was awarded the Paul E. Darlington Award from the University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. She is an associate editor of PLoS Pathogens and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Bacteriology.
She has chaired multiple national and international scientific conferences and served on several biodefense related federal advisory committees. She currently chairs the National Institute of Health Review Group on Bacterial Pathogenesis.